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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1529
 
Victory on the Gogra, where it meets the Ganges, completed conquest of the kingdom of Delhi to the frontier of Bengal.
Babar's acts, problems, and personality appeared in his Turki Memoirs, or Baburnama.
 
1530–56
 
Humayun drove Bahadur Shah of Gujarat to flight before Chitor and captured Mandu and Champanir (1535) but lost both through a year of inaction. The same fault and treachery of his brothers lost the empire to the nayakas.  
 
1530s–1730s
 
The nayakas established rule at Madurai, longest-lived of the nayaka “little kingdoms.” Also established were two other prominent nayaka centers at Tanjuvur (defeated by the 1670s) and the territory controlled by the Senji Nayakas (defeated by the 1630s, this territory passed first to Bijapur and then to the Mughals). Marked economic change in these territories caused by introduction of new crops, expanded sphere of manufacturing production, and creation of important marketing centers. Revenues collected by the states on agriculture and trade permitted them to build towns and large temple complexes and to develop a new kingly ethos of consumption that altered the philosophical and ideological definitions of kingship, especially in terms of the relationship of the king to the communities of his realm.  
 
1535
 
The Portuguese secured by treaty Bassein and were allowed to fortify Diu, which they defended against an Ottoman fleet and a Gujarati army (1538).  
 
1539–55
 
Sur dynasty of the Afghan Sher Shah (1539–45), who had consolidated his power in Bihar and had driven Humayun to seek refuge in Persia, whence he returned precariously to Delhi and Agra (1555). In north India, Sher Shah began administrative experiments that later served as the basis for the Mughal system of governance.  
 
1546
 
Efforts to expel the Portuguese failed miserably.  
 
1556–1605
 
AKBAR (b. 1542, personal rule 1562) restored and consolidated the empire throughout northern India.  
 
1556
 
Guided by Bairam Khan, his guardian (till 1560), he crushed the Afghans at Panipat.  
 
1559
 
Constantine de Braganza seized Daman.  
 
1561
 
Conquest of Malwa was effected by the harem party (dominant 1560–62).  
 
1562
 
Akbar's marriage to a Rajput princess of Amber (mother of Jahangir) and abolition of the jizya tax on non-Muslims (1564) marked a new policy of impartiality and conciliation of subjects. Marriage alliances and taxation policies served as aspects of new cultural system focused on elite loyalty to the emperor who, in turn, reinforced connections to the populace through patronage of various cultural activities.  
 
1565
 
A coalition of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur Bidar, and Golconda decisively defeated Vijayanagar at Talikota and led to the execution of the rajah. In 1574 Ahmadnagar annexed Berar, which had hindered the allied campaign.  
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.